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Oxalic acid etching stainless steel

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Super Angebote für Stainless Steel Vacuum Flask hier im Preisvergleich. Große Auswahl an Stainless Steel Vacuum Flask This prevents the carbon steel from being etched rapidly at low voltages (< 0.8 volt) during immersion. GRAIN-BOUNDARY ETCHING RESULTS The results of etching annealed Type 304 stainless steel by standard oxalic acid etching (10 g oxalic acid, 100 ml water, 6 volts) and by the procedures shown in Table 2 are illustrated in Fig. 4 External etching with stainless steel etching dish: 10% aqueous oxalic acid Voltage: 15V Time: 60 sec Preparation method for electrolytic polishing and etching of stainless steel. Grinding on SiC foil/paper 320#, 500# and 1000#. Fig. 3: Austenitic steel insufficiently polished 500x showing deformation after etching (Beraha II) Surface Surface.

The oxalic acid etch test is a rapid method of screening specimens of certain stainless steel grades which are essentially free of susceptibility to intergranular attack associated with chromium carbide participates. The test is used for acceptance, but not rejection, of material 10% Oxalic Acid in water electrolytic is the best for 300 series stainless. 10g oxalic acid / 100 Ml of water. Etch at 6 -10V until desired structure is present. By G.S.Crisi Date 10-18-2002 19:47. Mr. Rogerio Lopes da Silva, Metallurgical Lab. Technician of Mackenzie University at Sao Paulo, recommends the following etching solution: a mixture. Fig. 4: Laser weld in stainless steel, unmounted, electrolytically polished with A2 and etched with oxalic acid in water 10 %. Bright field. Preparation method Electrolytic polishing and etching of stainless steel (grinding on SiC foil/paper 220#, 500# and 1000#): Electrolyte: A2 Area: 5 cm 2 Voltage: 35 V Flowrate: 13 Time: 25 se 330 stainless steel in the annealed condition at 100X magnification. It was etched using a tint etch consisting of a solution of 40 ml hydrochloric acid (HCL) + distilled water (H 2O) + one gram potassium meta bisulfite (K 2S 2O 5) + four grams ammonium bifluoride (NH 4F-HF) at room temperature First try the Oxalic acid electrolytic etch. Use a small lab type power supply. Attach one lead to metal tongs and hold the part (you will need to make contact with it). Attach the other lead to a strip of stainless and place it into the beaker of acid solution. You can adjust the voltage and time to get the desired degree of etching

Selective etching has been commonly applied to stainless steels for detection, identification and measurement of delta ferrite, ferrite in dual phase grades, and sigma phase. Figure 20.4 shows examples of the use of a number of popular etchants to reveal the microstructure of a dual phase stainless steel in the hot rolled and annealed condition Metallographic Stainless Steel Etchants Etching stainless steels can be somewhat difficult due to the anti-corrosive nature of stainless steel. Austenitic or 300 series stainless steels typically have higher chrome as well as a significant amount of nickel (e.g. 304 stainless steel - 18% chrome, 8% nickel) which makes them harder to etch

Method 1of 2:Preparing the Steel for Etching. 1. Choose the type of steel you want to etch. You can etch stainless steel, mild steel, or high-carbon steel. Which type of steel you etch will determine the best acid or chemical to use to etch it with. 2 Oxalic etching solution is the most popular electrolytic etching solution for revealing the microstructure of austenitic stainless steels (300 series). Made with ACS reagent grade oxalic acid. This product is listed in ASTM standard E 407 as formula number 13. User Instructions: For austenitic stainless steels: **This procedure requires the use of electrolytic etching The second technique involves the use of conventional nital or picral etchants and electrolytic etching with a 50 percent nitric acid-50 percent water solution at specific voltages and current densities (1.2 volts and 20 mA/cm 2) to reveal the structure of a carbon-steel-stainless-steel weldment. The nital or picral etchant is used to etch the. Stainless steel, for example 18- 8 stainless steel, is insoluble in oxalic acid solution as the surface of the steel is covered by chromium-nickel oxide, accordingly, in order to form oxalate coating on the surface, it is necessary to add activating agents (etching agents) and oxidation accelerators to said oxalic acid solution

ISO/CD 4212 Method of oxalic acid etching test for intergranular corrosion of austenitic stainless steel 1.2 The Oxalic Acid Etch Test is a rapid method of identifying, by simple etching, those specimens of certain stainless steel grades that are essentially free of susceptibility to intergranular attack associated with chromium carbide precipitates. These specimens will have low corrosion rates in certain corrosion tests and therefore can be eliminated (screened) from testing as acceptable

To prep the work piece, I scrubbed it thoroughly with scotchbrite and a bit of oxalic acid, then rinsed with water. The vinyl mask was applied as soon as the piece dried. My next steps are to try again with more voltage and/or current, and possibly etching with ferric chloride, although I don't think the FeCl3 will etch evenly Stainless Steel Chemical Compatibility Chart: Check the chemical compatibility of Stainless Steel with various chemicals, solvents, alcohols and other products.. Shop Stainless Steel. Please Note: The information in this chart has been supplied by reputable sources and is to be used ONLY as a guide in selecting equipment for appropriate chemical compatibility

Table 1: Chemical composition in wt.% of austenitic stainless steel used in this study . The oxalic acid etch test was used for the determination of steel sensitivity to intergranular corrosion. The specimens were electrolytically etched in 10% oxalic acid for 90 sec. at a current density of 1 A/cm 2. The etched microstructures were then. Steps that you will need to take: 1. Dip the soft cloth into vinegar and apply to the stainless steel surface stained by the acid. 2. Gently rub in clockwise strokes till the stain vanishes. 3. If you feel there is still a little bit of the stain left wipe the surface clean with a clean towel and apply olive oil Oxalic acid is usually sold as a powder, and you can get it in pharmacies, Concrete etching is the most common use for it, as is pool treatment I suggest that you only use it to treat stainless steel. With other metals, the acid will start oxidizing too quickly and start to eat away at the healthy layer of metal as well

Improved metallographic etching techniques for stainless

  1. In this video I acid etch the top hatch of my Stainless work bench. If you want a list of the materials, check out my blog post. http://www.rffwoodshop.com..
  2. Stainless Steels 10 g Oxalic Acid 100 ml Water Use Electrolytically 5 ml Sulfuric Acid 100 ml Water Use Electrolytically 1.5. Electrolytic etching The electrolytic etching of a sample is done in an electrolysis cell. This process is particularly used for the electrolytic polishing of stainless steel. The solution used in electrolytic polishin
  3. utes.
  4. Oxalic Acid Etch Test Results. Figure 4 reveals the corrosion morphology of sensitized stainless steel after the oxalic acid etch test for different times. From Fig. 4, the degree of IGC increases with an increase in etching time in 10 % oxalic acid solution. The specimen etched for 15 s exhibits a slight IGC attack with a dual structure, mixed.
  5. acid and to all stainless steel grades that might be subject to end grain corrosion in nitric acid service. 1.7 Only those stainless steel grades are listed in Table 1 for which data on the application of the oxalic acid etch test and on their performance in various quantitative evaluation tests are available
  6. Oxalate conversion coating method for stainless steel suitable for cold-working thereof which is characterized in that stannous salt is added into the treating solution consisting of principal agent of oxalic acid and/or oxalates, activating agents and oxidizing agents
  7. Pt or stainless steel cathode 3-6 volts DC 5-60 seconds Carbide and cementite etching. Nimonic alloys (Ni) 45 parts Hydrochloric acid 15 parts Nitric acid 40 parts glycerol. Stainless steel cathode 2-4 volts DC, 0.5 A/dm 2 5-15 seconds. Nimonic PK31. Stainless Steels. 100 ml Distilled water 10 grams oxalic acid. Stainless steel cathode 6 volts.

Four practices, including Practice W, X, Y, and Z, are used for determining susceptibility to intergranular attack in ferritic stainless steel. These practices cover the following tests; oxalic acid etch test, ferritic sulphate-sulfuric acid test, copper-copper sulphate-50% sulfuric acid test, and copper-copper sulphate-16% sulfuric acid test Oxalic acid is an organic compound containing carboxylic acids. It is more acidic than acetic acid. The conjugate base of oxalic acid is oxalate (C 2 O 4 2-), which is used as a chelating agent for metal cations.Oxalic acid is the most popular electrolytic etching solution to reveal the microstructure of austenitic stainless steels Acid Test for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular Attack in Molybdenum-Bearing Austenitic Stainless Steels (Sections 47 to 58, inclusive). 1.2 The Oxalic Acid Etch Test is a rapid method of identifying, by simple etching, those specimens of certain stainless steel grades that are essentially free of susceptibilit Kostenlose Lieferung möglic Figure 1 shows the optical micrographs of the BFS600 austenitic stainless steel samples with and without tensile deformation after the 10% oxalic acid etching. Step structure of austenitic grains was observed for the BFS600 stainless steel sample before tensile deformation in Figure 1a. Mechanica

Table 1. Double loop EPR evaluation criteria with corresponding oxalic acid etch structure for 304 and 304L stainless steels.....6 Table 2. Tensile strengths for 400 RPM UWFSW, 500 RPM UWFSW, and bas Stainless Steel Optional Etch solution: Material Amount Oxalic Acid 14.0 kg Concentrated Sulfuric Acid 12.2 kg Water 70 L Immerse in etchant solution for 10 minutes at 85°C-90°C, remove from the solution and, under clean running water, and brush off the black deposit with a clean stiff brush. Dry with hot air. Bond as soon as possible A saturated solution of oxalic acid, applied with a soft cloth or cotton wool and allowed to stand for a few minutes, without rubbing or abrading. This should etch out the iron particles, without leaving scratches or significantly altering the surface texture of the stainless steel. Moderate rust stainin

  1. ing the appear-ance under a microscope. Comparisons are then made to some ASTM photographs. Two other tests listed in A262 are the boiling sulfuric acid-ferric sulfate solution test and the nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid test at room temperature
  2. LAB CORROSION DATA FOR STAINLESS STEEL Media Temp Type Media Temp Type Media Temp Type + 304 316 + 304 316 + 304 316 Acetic Acid Carbolic acid B l l Hydrocyanic acid 70 l l Oxalic, acid Sodium bisulfite Sulfurous acid in water 10% 70 l l Sp. gr. 1.38-solution 70 l l saturated 70 ll
  3. Chemical banding revealed by chemical etching in a cold‐rolled metastable stainless steel C. Celada a,*, I. Toda‐Caraballo b, B. Kimb, D. San Martín a aMATERALIA Research Group, Department of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM - CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid, Spain
  4. Oxalic acid etching as per the ASTM 262 Practice-A [8] showed the 'step' structure in beat-affected zone of as-received stainless steel of both the pipes. While 304LN-P I remained to be 'step' even after ageing for longer hours such as for 8000 and 800hrs at 400°C and 450°C respectively, 304LN-P

Steps that you will need to take: 1. Dip the soft cloth into vinegar and apply to the stainless steel surface stained by the acid. 2. Gently rub in clockwise strokes till the stain vanishes. 3. If you feel there is still a little bit of the stain left wipe the surface clean with a clean towel and apply olive oil We use oxalic acid etching method to obtain good roughening effect, and the surface roughness (Ra) can be up to 1.50 after etching for 1 hour. ±0.30μm, etching 2h Ra is 2.99±0.57μm, more than double the Ra (1.42±0.14μm) of sandblasting alone, and the bond strength is increased by 30% Common methods to check the susceptibility of stainless steels to intergranular attack are described in ASTM A2621 for austenitic steels and ASTM A7632 for ferritic steels. Practice A in ASTM A262 and Practice W in ASTM A763 have rules for etch tests in oxalic acid tAblE A4.3 Electrolytic etching techniques for stainless steels Etchant Materials Composition/use Notes Oxalic acid: 10% Ferritic Austenitic 10 g oxalic acid and 90 ml H 2 O. Use at room temperature. Etch at 3-6 volts for 5-60 s Very effective at revealing grain boundaries, particularly if there is carbide precipitation. This technique is ofte heat treatment time on the corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steel in various concentrations of oxalic acid were studied in this work, using the conventional weight loss and electrochemical measurements. Samples of a typical 304 stainless steel were tempered at 150oC, 250 and 350oC after being austenized at 1050oC for 10 minutes

Rinse splashes off immediately. Use a 10%-15% phosphoric acid-based solution in warm water. Spread cleaner evenly, wait 30-60 minutes, then neutralize the acid with an alkaline cleaner or diluted ammonia. Rinse with clean water. Graffiti on stainless steel can be removed using biodegradable graffiti-cleaning wipes Using Nital (2-3% nitric acid in ethanol) to reveal steel microstructure. Loosen cotton swab tip, etch for 30-45 seconds to yield a visibly cloudy surface, d.. The specimens were etched at a current density of 1 A/cm 2 for 90 s in a 10% oxalic acid solution (100 g oxalic acid crystal dissolving in 900 mL deionized water). During the etch test, the specimens worked as the anode, and a stainless steel sheet was used as the cathode After thorough cleaning, the stainless steel part is ready for immersion in a passivating acid bath. Any one of three approaches can be used—nitric acid passivation, nitric acid with sodium dichromate passivation and citric acid passivation. Which approach to use depends on the grade of stainless steel and prescribed acceptance criteria

1. Practice A - Oxalic Acid Etch Test for Classification of Etch Structures of Austenitic Stainless Steel. Samples were prepared via metallography method ASTM E3 and etched with oxalic acid of electrolyte etching to reveal the structure. The structure was classified according to ASTM A262 Practice A (clause 11) ASTM A262 covers the standard practices for detecting susceptibility to intergranular attack in austenitic stainless steels. These practices include five intergranular corrosion tests, namely: (1) oxalic acid etch test for classification of etch structures of austenitic stainless steels; (2) ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid test, (3) nitric acid test and (4) copper-copper sulfate-sulfuric acid. Etch Structure Classification, otherwise known as an oxalic acid etch test or sodium hydroxide etch test, is performed as a screening test on stainless steel prior to a corrosion resistance test. Etch Structure Classification is a fast way of determining if a stainless steel piece is free of susceptibility to intergranular attack. If this is [

What is the Oxalic Etch Test? - Definition from Corrosionpedi

Electrolytic etching using 10% oxalic acid with 4 V for 10 s. b. Electrolytic etching using 7% oxalic acid with 2 V and for 10 s followed by 10% KOH etched with 2 V and 10 s. c. 20% NaOH with 4 V for 3 s. d. Color etching using Beraha's reagent with the composition of 60 ml water, 30 ml HCl, 0.75 g potassium bisulfite for 10-12 s Fig. 3 schematically illustrates the microstructure of a sensitized austenitic stainless steel after etching in oxalic acid. Optical microscopy reveals any of the three structures viz. step, ditch and dual. Step structure corresponds to clean grain boundaries and, hence, an annealed structure Practice A, the oxalic acid etch test is used as a rapid technique to screen samples of certain stainless steel grades to ensure they are free of susceptibility to intergranular attack. The test is generally performed for acceptance of materials, but not sufficient for rejection of materials

Etching Stainless Steel

The corrosion behavior of mild steel (SS 41 [UNS K02600]) and ferritic stainless steels (type 430 [UNS S43000], type 444 [UNS S444001) in oxalic acid solutions was investigated by corrosion weight loss, DC polarization, and natural electrode potential (NEP) variations with time. The surfaces of the specimens were observed by scanning electron. The Oxalic Acid EtchTest is a rapid method of identifying, by simple etching, those specimens of certain stainless steel grades that are essentially free of susceptibility to intergranular attack associated with chromium carbide precipitates 30 sec. *Required for central polishing force. Click here for more information on central vs. individual polishing force polishing. 431 Stainless Steel, mag. 400X, etched with. Modified Murakami's. 300 Series Stainless Steel, 200X (BF), Etchant Oxalic Acid. Return to top Stainless Steel 0.024 in. (0.6 mm) thick with a mill supplied 2B finish. 430 ULTRA FORM Stainless Steel coils have a higher plastic strain ratio (r m (Oxalic acid etch) and the more stringent Practice Z accelerated (Strauss Test), boiling CuSO 4-Cu solution results shown below revealed both alloys passed the two practices

A method for surface treatment of a stainless steel separator for a fuel cell comprises preparing a stainless steel sheet containing nickel, chrome and iron, and having a passive film on a surface of the stainless steel sheet, and dipping the stainless steel sheet into a mixed etching solution of nitric acid (HNO3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) at a temperature of 50-70° C. for 30 seconds to 30. Chemical Etching for Prototypes. Chemical Etching is an ideal process for prototyping because of its short lead time and inexpensive tooling. For processing, multiple design iterations of the same thickness can be included on one phototool and etched at the same time Material: AISI 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel. Results: Since the material is highly sensitive against surface deformations, low sample force during mechanical preparation is recommended. Annealed twins can be seen in the microstructure. Etching: 10% oxalic acid

Metallography of stainless steel insight Struers

  1. 1.3 The oxalic acid etch test is a rapid method of identifying, by simple etching, those specimens of certain stainless steel grades which are essentially free of susceptibility to intergranular attack associated with chromium carbide precipitates
  2. The bend test evaluations for the steel test specimens are presented. 1. Scope: 1.1 These practices cover the following four tests: 1.1.1 Practice W—Oxalic acid etch test for detecting susceptibility to intergranular attack in stabilized ferritic stainless steels by classification of the etching structures (see Sections 3 - 10)

Guide to Etching Specialty Alloy

Oxalic Acid Test, ASTM A262, Practice A (Oxalic Acid Etch) The oxalic acid etch test is a rapid method of screening specimens of certain stainless steel grades which are essentially free from susceptibility to intergranular attack associated with chromium carbide participates. The test is used for acceptance and not the rejection of a material · A. For stainless steel etching use solid ferric chloride chemical 1 kg. mix 1 liter of water and should do the process only after two hours after mixing and use hydrofluoric acid 100 ml. before 5 minutes of the process. you will get better etching. because I have a signage company it is very useful. try and will give you best result Hastelloy C-276 is universally resistant to almost all corrosion. Sometimes, this may bring difficulties in etching marks on the alloy surface. Generally, 95 ml hydrochloric acid mixed with 5 gm. of oxalic acid are used as the etchant for Hastelloy C276 Practice B : It is Ferric sulphate -Sulphuric acid test for 120hrs boiling in the 50% solution. It detects susceptibility to inter granular attack with mainly M23C6 precipitated at grain boundary in a stabilized austenitic stainless steel. It cannot detect the susceptibility to inter granular corrosion associated with Sigma phase Abstract. To minimize the costs and delivery time delays associated with purchasing type 304L stainless steel materials for service in nitric-acid-containing media, an alternative to the current Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant requirement of testing in accordance with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) A 262, Practice C (the boiling nitric acid test), is being sought

etchant for 304 stainless - Metal and Metallurgy

Another option is oxalic acid. Oxalic acid is an active ingredient in popular cleaners like Barkeeper's Friend. Stronger than both acetic and citric acid, it should only be used sparingly when these weaker acids aren't up to the task of cutting through your stains and deposits. The potential for etching your finish is much greater, and regular. In duplex stainless steels, due to the high Cr and Mo contents, the potential presence of σ phase is a closely monitored feature. An electrolytic etching method described in ASTM A923, method A [2] proved very convenient for revealing σ phase in AISI 316 stainless steel. This method is especiall Etching reveals the SCC cracking is transgranular in nature in Figures 15 and 16. [Note: Chloride ion SCC in stainless steel is transgranular, occurs at somewhat elevated temperatures (typically above 150o F), and occurs under a tensile stress.] Figure 17 reveals a second oxidized corrosion penetration with branch-like features

Metallographic Etching Procedures & Methods Buehle

  1. Oxalic Acid cleaners such as Bar Keeper's Friend, Kleen King, or Revere Ware Stainless cleaners on the Etched Markings - These may cause the etching to fade. • OxiClean or other peroxide cleaners in combination with hard water - This can cause calcium carbonate to precipitate onto the surface of the stainless
  2. -Specimens (exalic acid etch, 250X) 9 Type-304 Stainless Steel (Heat No. 2P6396) Welded Pipe 21 Specimens (oxalic acid etch, 250X) 10 Type-304 Stainless Steel (Heat No. 2P6426) Welded Pipe 22 Specimens (oxalic acid etch, 250X) 11 Tensile Surface of Furnace-Sensitized Type-304 Stainless 23 Steel (Heat No. 78500) after Exposure to Dow Copper Rins
  3. Oxalic acid is a poor choice. You likely etched the surface. The only thing you can do is buff it out. Vinegar is usually used to remove rust. It is much less reactive with the metal. Naval jelly is also used to remove rust. It is a mixture of phosphoric acid. Rust Out is also a good choice. It won't etch stainless steel
  4. nitric acid and to all stainless steel grades which might be subject to end grain corrosion in nitric acid service. 1.8 Only those stainless steel grades are listed in Table I for which data on the application of the oxalic acid etch test and on their performance in various quantitative evaluation tests are available

Metallographic Etchants for Stainless Steel

Etching was performed with both Acetic Glyceregia and Oxalic acid in accordance with ASTM E407 to reveal the microstructure, which was examined using an optical microscope per ASTM E883. Branching cracks were observed in the set screw hole of the bolt head cross-section (Figures 4 through 7) No doubt it will, but oxalic acid is used to etch stainless steels for metallography, so it may cause some tarnishing. It sounds from the OP that there is some sort of surface etching or pitting, for which polishing is probably going to give the most worthwhile benefits Ferritic stainless steel with manganese 200x sulfides and strings of small carbides, etched electrolytically with 10% oxalic acid. Heat treatment has a major effect on martensitic stainless steels, which are formed via instant cooling

How to Acid Etch Steel: 11 Steps (with Pictures) - wikiHo

oxalic acid - Wiktionary

Oxalic Etching Solution, 500 mL Etchant Stor

Oxalate Conversion Coating Method for Stainless Steel

from the surface of the stainless steel. Mixtures of nitric and hydrofluoric acids are usually used for pickling stainless steels. Pickling is the process used to remove weld heat tinted layers from the surface of stainless steel fabrications, where the steel's surface chromium level has been reduced. PICKLING AND PASSIVATING STAINLESS STEEL 2 Nital 2% in Ethanol 500cc - - for etching Fe based, Carbon steel and alloys and cast iron Nital 2% in Ethanol 2.5LTR - for etching Fe based, Carbon steel and alloys and cast iron Oxalic Acid 10% 100ml most popular electrolytic etching solution for revealing the microstructure of austenitic stainless steels (300 series) Picral 2% 100ml for the. phosphoric acid 80 w% Room temperature sulphuric acid 10 w% water 10 w% The bath is controlled, as mentioned by James Watt, by the voltage. The voltage is critical. I have been coloring Ti for decorative use (on a small scale ) using Coca - Cola and stainless steel cathodes, powered from my anodising rectifier at + - 60volts Using a toothbrush and a 10% solution of oxalic acid in de-ionized water, the brown streak (determined from the EDS to be mostly iron) was removed from the piece of stainless steel (Figure 5). Examination of the stainless steel underlying the brown streak showed a residual gray discoloration of the surface of the stainless steel, but no.

Is there any etching agent to reveal the grain boundariesOxalic Etching Solution, 500 mL | Etchant StoreNitrogen Surface Enrichment of Austenitic Stainless Steel

GB/T 14976-2002 English Version - GB/T 14976-2002 Stainless Steel Seamless Tubes for Fluid Transport (English Version): GB/T 14976-2002, GB 14976-2002, GBT 14976-2002, GB/T14976-2002, GB/T 14976, GB/T14976, GB14976-2002, GB 14976, GB14976, GBT14976-2002, GBT 14976, GBT1497 Oxalic Acid Etch Test of SS 304 - SS 304 Oxalic Acid Etch Test of SS 304-SS 17 - 4 PH •The Oxalic Acid Test is not a conclusive corrosion test for 17-4 PH because its ability to test the corrosion resistance of martensitic stainless steels has been questioned in previous literature 3. Removing Rusts. Oxalic acid is also used to remove rusts that are commonly found on plumbing pipes and kitchen countertops, and is a major ingredient found in commercial rust removers for sinks, tubs, and metal rust stains. 4. Other Uses. Aside from bleaching, rust removing, and stain removing, oxalic acid is also used as a reducing agent in. 4 Answers4. Since it's actually etched into the metal, you'll need to buff the sink to a consistent finish. One method, assuming it's a stainless steel surface, is to use a mild abrasive with oxalic acid, such as Barkeepers Friend and clean and abrade the entire sink with a sponge or cloth. This will require a lot of rubbing Suitable for austenitic stainless steel to intergranular corrosion screening test after the sample in a 10% solution of oxalic acid electrolytic etching, observed under the microscope By etching the surface of the microstructure to determine the need for method B, Method C, Method D, Method E, long hot acid test