Agriculture is the oldest and most basic way of economic subsistence

What is the oldest and the most basic way of economic

  1. Answers: 2 on a question: What is the oldest and the most basic way of economic subsistence? A. gathering and fishing B. hunting and pastoral C. pastoral and fishing D. hunting and gatherin
  2. Correct answers: 2, question: 7. What is the oldest and the most basic way of economic subsistence?A Gathering and fishing C. Pastoral and fishingB. Hunting and pastoral D. hunting and gathering8. It is the product of the post-industrial society.A. Industrial societyC. Virtual societyB. Feudal societyD. Agricultural society9. The society based on the use of specialized machinery in.
  3. A subsistence economy is one of the oldest approaches to market management. This means that this market approach relies on natural resources. Activities like hunting, fishing, gathering, food cultivation and handmade homes are the primary drivers behind survival
  4. The oldest and the most basic way of economic subsistence - 11415143 julieasoque7945 julieasoque7945 24.02.2021 History Junior High School answered The oldest and the most basic way of economic subsistence 1 See answer ryzameligrito485 ryzameligrito485 Answer

7. What is the oldest and the most basic way of economic ..

The agriculture sector is the backbone of an economy which provides the basic ingredients to mankind and now raw material for industrialisation. Lessons drawn from the economic history of many advanced countries tell us that agricultural prosperity contributed considerably in fostering economic advancement Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities. The history of agriculture began thousands of years ago A subsistence economy is an economy directed to basic subsistence (the provision of food, clothing, shelter) rather than to the market. Henceforth, subsistence is understood as supporting oneself at a minimum level. Often, the subsistence economy is moneyless and relies on natural resources to provide for basic needs through hunting, gathering, and agriculture ADVERTISEMENTS: Agriculture plays a vital role in economic development of developing countries. The role of agriculture in economic development is crucial because a majority of the population of developing countries make their living from agriculture. We explain below the role of agriculture in detail and point out in what ways agriculture can contribute to economic [

what is the oldest and the most basic way of economic

Agriculture is the backbone of Economic System of a Given Country Increasing population means that there has to be an increased focus the primary sector. World Bank Report states that three out of four people in developing countries live in rural areas and earn as less as $2 a day Horticulture is the small-scale cultivation of crops intended primarily for subsistence. Agriculture, the subsistence system used in the United States, involves the cultivation of domesticated plants and animals using technologies that allow for intensive use of the land. Can all societies be categorized neatly into one of these modes

The oldest and the most basic way of economic subsistence

Most subsistence cultures had traditional structured requirements to share, especially of game. This ensures that those who are too old or too young to hunt survive, and that some few specialists can receive a sort of basic income in needed food Subsistence and Commercial farming are the two types of farming practices. Subsistence agriculture is performed by the farmer for the survival of his own and the person's dependent on him. On the contrary, commercial agriculture is nothing but an agricultural business, wherein crops are grown for trading purpose The industrialization of agriculture began after World War II, as a way of addressing global hunger and making the food supply more efficient and safe. The global shift towards this model of farming in the last sixty years has come with many costs Agriculture was the primary source of the economy prior to the industrial revolution. With many trade options coming up, many are dependent on their income on agriculture. Agriculture is the most peaceful and environmentally friendly method. It is a very reliable source of life for humanity, as well as one of the honest sources of income

What Is A Subsistence Economy? - WorldAtla

Lesson-2.pptx - Lesson 2 SOCIOCULTURAL AND POLITICAL ..

Most countries have an economy that is dependent on agriculture - either in a small or big way. From employment generation to contribution to National Income, agriculture is important. In 2010, around 25 million persons were regularly engaged in agricultural work in the European Union. 58% men were working on full time in farms Types of Subsistence Farming Agricultural production (plant & animal) for family/local consumption w/basic tools & native plants. Most LDC farmers are subsistence. Extensive Subsistence: Large areas of land, minimal labor input, low yields per acre, & low population densities Areas of Pastoral Nomadism Tropical Areas of Shifting Cultivation 1 Even though the medieval economy grew and transformed, agriculture continued to be the mainstay in the medieval market economy. Manorial System: Early Agriculture. The manorial system was an integral part of the social and economic structure of the middle ages. The system created the mode of cultivating plants that we today know as horticulture If you know what the subsistence base is, it is possible to predict many of the other basic cultural patterns. There is a surprisingly high positive correlation between the type of economy and such things as population sizes and densities, social and political systems, scale of warfare, and complexity of science, mathematics, and technology During this time period, most economic activity took place at the subsistence level, in which goods are produced for the consumption and survival of one's family group

A. by replacing the agricultural underpinnings of most economies with an urban one, which allowed children to go to school more easily and therefore increased human capital. B. because technological changes, such as new machinery and new methods of production, became more systematic and pervasive, underpinning economic growth. C Agriculture often appears to be one of the most difficult industries, frequently leading to some form of market failure. In the EU and US, agriculture is the most heavily subsidised industry, yet despite the cost of the subsidy it fails to address many issues relating to agriculture Most of the world was not affected by these developments, however. Farmers in Asia, Australia, Africa, and South America continued to use old ways of agriculture. Agricultural Science In the early 1900s, an average farmer in the U.S. produced enough food to feed a family of five. Many of today's farmers can feed that family and a hundred. Primary Sector . The primary sector of the economy extracts or harvests products from the earth such as raw materials and basic foods. Activities associated with primary economic activity include agriculture (both subsistence and commercial), mining, forestry, grazing, hunting and gathering, fishing, and quarrying.The packaging and processing of raw materials are also considered to be part of.

The Development of Agriculture National Geographic Societ

  1. g to be rather a complete system which includes inputs, processing, and outputs
  2. g in the last sixty years has come with many costs. Industrialized agriculture is highly.
  3. ated by Wet Paddy Cultivation: Basic crop of this type of agriculture is rice, Size of crop - lands are very.
  4. Poor economic geography (remote location from markets, small land and population mass, large and gaps in infrastructure stand in the way. Trust and access are basic requirements for Despite being a major agricultural producer, Fiji is the most urbanized of the PICs. More than 5
  5. In recent history, agriculture has been the main source of the food we consume on a daily basis. In this lesson, we will explore the difference between industrialized and subsistence agriculture
  6. (GDP) among the LDCs, employs more people than any other sector (as much as 70 percent in most cases), represents a major source of foreign exchange, supplies the bulk of basic food and provides subsistence and other income to more than half of the LDCs' population. The strong forward and backward linkages within th

Agriculture is the oldest economic activity. It has developed along side the development of human society. the more quickly it shifts from subsistence to monetised basis, and the more favourable are the demand contribution can be fostered in three ways. First, and most obvious, rising incomes in agriculture. Agriculture. Agriculture plays a central role in the economies of nations throughout Africa, accounting for between 30 and 60 percent of all economic production. In many African nations, a majority of the people is engaged in farming, producing goods for domestic use and sometimes for export as well. Peasant and subsistence farming is the basic. Agriculture And Food Systems Unsustainable. A landmark scientific assessment commissioned by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has confirmed that agriculture is having a monumental impact on earth's finite resources. According to the study, 38% of the world's total land area was used for agriculture in 2007 and agriculture is. Commercial agriculture is the production of agricultural products used primarily for sale or trade. Unlike subsistence agriculture that is oriented towards maintaining family subsistence, the goal of commercial agriculture is to generate income and profit through the sale of agriculture products produced on the farm Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and many other desired products by the cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). The practice of.

most countries, by way of industrialization and urbanization. The real problem, he continues, is not agriculture as such or the absence of manufactures as such, but poverty and backwardness, poor agriculture, or poor agriculture and poor manufacturing. The remedy is to remove the basic causes of the poverty and backwardness [48, p. 71] constraints. Assuming that Pleistocene agriculture was im-possible, the earliest occurrences of agriculture after the Younger Dryas suggest that it takes on the order of 1,000-2,000 years to overcome the internal constraints pre-venting agricultural development once climate ameliorates and stabilizes, most of this probably having to do with de

Executive Office of the President Council of Economic Advisers: The Economic Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Fourth Quarterly Report July 14, 2010, Pages 2-3, 6. ADVERTISEMENTS: Some of the geographical factors influencing agriculture are 1. Natural Factors 2. Economic Factors 3. Social Factors 4. Political Factors! Growth and development of agriculture is always directed and determined by physical, economic, social and political factors. ADVERTISEMENTS: In fact, geographical factors play a vital role in agricultural development, in spite of the. The Mayan economy, which is to say the subsistence and trade networks of the Classic Period Maya (ca 250-900 CE), was dependent to a large extent on the way the various centers interacted with each other and with the rural areas under their control. The Maya were never one organized civilization under one leader, they were a loose collection of independent city-states whose individual power.

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis that is already having devastating impacts on the world economy - both directly and through necessary measures to contain the spread of the disease. These impacts are also being felt by the food and agriculture sector. While the supply of food has held up well to date, in many countries, the measures put in place to contain the spread of the. The problems of agriculture are many, but the article below discusses a few of the most influential ones that end up governing the agricultural sector widely. These problems vary from small to big and are different for different countries all over the world. Despite that, the underlying issues of agriculture faced globally are along the same lines on actions needed for agriculture to be accorded its rightful place in the LDCs. Agriculture is the mainstay of the LDC economies, underpinning their food security, export earnings and rural development. Yet, their agricultural production for the domestic and export markets has lagged behind, with growth in per caput output declining in the. Shifting agriculture has become the most menacing land use problem of the tropical world. Over the centuries it has destroyed and degraded millions of hectares of forests and forest soils. Today it is a major obstacle to the development of many countries and to efforts to increase the food supply of the tropics

Types of Subsistence Farming: Primitive and Intensive

The agricultural field employs more than a third of the total number of workers worldwide after the service industry. However, the number of workers in the agricultural sector of developed nations has reduced over the last centuries. Top 13 Types of Agriculture. Although agriculture is not uniform across the world, it is the most widespread. Crop die-offs occur during droughts. Thus, farmers, especially those engaged in subsistence farming, suffer badly during this time as agriculture is usually their lone source of income. Inadequate water and fodder supplies also lead to losses of livestock, further aggravating the economic losses incurred by the farmers. 2 Agricultural Methods of the Indian Farmer. Farming is one of the oldest economic activity in our country. Different regions have different methods of farming. However, all these methods have significantly evolved over the years with changes in weather and climatic conditions, technological innovations and socio-cultural practices Commercial Agriculture vs. Subsistence Agriculture. Commercial Agriculture is agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm and make a profit. These products are normally sold wholesaler or retail outlets (e.g. Supermarkets). In the United States Commercial Farming takes place in Midwest on huge farms tended by.

UCSP LHT - Week 4 - Cultural, Social, Political and

Hunting and gathering, subsistence agriculture, and the barter system are characteristics of a (1) market economy (2) command economy (3) traditional economy (4) mixed economy 803-3 In a traditional economic system, which type of goods is most often produced? (1) agricultural products (2) heavy industrial machinery (3) military supplie Agriculture is the most comprehensive word used to denote the many ways in which crop plants and domestic animals sustain the global human population by providing food and other products. The English word agriculture derives from the Latin ager (field) and colo (cultivate) signifying, when combined, the Latin agricultura: field or land tillage Article (PDF-2MB) Agriculture in Africa has a massive social and economic footprint. More than 60 percent of the population of sub-Saharan Africa is smallholder farmers, and about 23 percent of sub-Saharan Africa's GDP comes from agriculture. Yet, Africa's full agricultural potential remains untapped agriculture sector. The shift from subsistence to commercial agricultural production requires funds. However, in developing countries, where agriculture is a source of livelihood for 86 per cent of rural people (International Finance Corporation [IFC], 2013), financing for investments in agriculture is scarce, even for large investors. I

In those economies where subsistence agriculture is found there is often another form of economic organization of agricultural production—plantation agriculture. Its economic organization contrasts sharply with that of subsistence agriculture: typically, it is entirely market oriented, selling its products in national and international markets FAO infographic, 2012. On average, women comprise 43% of the agricultural labour force in developing countries, ranging from 20% in Latin America to 50% in Eastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. If they had the same access to productive resources as men, they could increase yields on their farms by 20-30% The following ten sustainable farming methods and practices are just a few examples of the many ways that we can achieve a much more sustainable agriculture. #1 Permaculture Permaculture is a design system that applies principles that are found in nature to the development of human settlements, allowing humanity to live in harmony with the.

In a 2019 report, the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) identified local food systems and agriculture as two promising sectors to build economic resilience in the region, which is important in a state with the lowest labor force participation rate in the nation, where the decline of coal mining has left residents with few options to make a. Difference Between Agriculture and Horticulture Agriculture vs Horticulture Although horticulture is generally classified as a subdivision of agriculture which deals with plant gardening, it is actually different from agriculture. It is easy to relate the two because some of the techniques employed are used interchangeably in both sciences, for instance in the cultivation of crops which is an. Agriculture is the mainstay of the Ethiopian economy, contributing 41.4% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP), 83.9% of the total exports, and 80% of all employment in the country (Matousa, Todob, & Mojoc, 2013). Put in perspective, Ethiopia's key agricultural sector has grown at an annual rate of about 10% over the past decade.

Importance of agricultural sector in a country's economic

  1. Pastoralism. Pastoralism is a subsistence pattern in which people make their living by tending herds of large animals. The species of animals vary with the region of the world, but they are all domesticated herbivores that normally live in herds and eat grasses or other abundant plant foods. Horses are the preferred species by most pastoralists in Mongolia and elsewhere in Central Asia
  2. Malawi remains one of the poorest countries in the world despite making significant economic and structural reforms to sustain economic growth. The economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, employing nearly 80% of the population, and it is vulnerable to external shocks, particularly climatic shocks
  3. Transformative changes of agriculture and food systems By the Thematic Group on Sustainable Agriculture and Food Systems * It is hard to exaggerate the role that agriculture plays in human development. From providing basic sustenance to employing millions of farmers worldwide, agriculture is a fundamental part of almos

Agriculture - Wikipedi

  1. The advent of agriculture occurred gradually in the hill country of south-eastern Turkey, western Iran, and the Levant, most likely because the region happened to be home to a wide range of plants and animals that lend themselves to domestication and human consumption.Wheat and goats were domesticated by around 9000 BCE, followed by peas and lentils around 8000 BCE, olive trees by 5000 BCE.
  2. Kabul University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension The Economics of Agricultural Development (Lecture Note) By Assistant Professor Najibullah HASSANZOY First Semester 2013 - 1392 Chapter - 1 Basic Concepts Most of the people in the world are poor, so if we knew the economics of being poor, we would know much of the economics that really matters
  3. Meanwhile, the poorest countries will suffer the most from climate change; in particular, small subsistence farmers will be affected. The International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development (IAASTD) concluded that business as usual is no longer an option and that the future of agriculture lies in.
  4. Extension of basic social security benefits to agricultural wage workers. Though the workforce in agriculture is forecast to grow over the next decade, only three regions of the world - sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and the Middle East/North Africa - are expected to see increases in their agricultural workforces beyond 2010 by, respectively.
  5. Agricultural land satisfied that most basic of equitable economic conditions in their eyes. They would take measured steps through public policy to ensure this basic condition was met
  6. g, and the vast majority are small-scale, semi-subsistence farmers

Economic Revolutions - Agricultural Revolution. 1. Changes inAgriculture and Industry Created by tbonnar. 2. Job Sectors• Types of jobs in society can be classified into three main sectors: Agriculture/Resource ex. Farming, mining, forestry, fishing Industry ex. Factories, workshops, construction Service ex. Retail, teaching, banking, nursing. 3 There were three ways in which collective labor was organized: The first one was the ayni to help a member of the community who was in need. Helping build a house or help a sick member of the community are examples of ayni.. The second was the minka or team work for the benefit of the whole community. Examples of minka are building agricultural terraces and cleaning the irrigation canals Modernization is a process. This process started about fifteen thousand years ago when the first hunters and foragers transitioned from this oldest of human subsistence models to the most basic form of farming; horticulture. The development of simple horticulture in several different locations across the globe within the same millennium. Agriculture remains one of Morocco's major economic drivers. The sector represents on average 15% of GDP and employs close to half of the labor force. 23% of the country's exports are also agricultural products. But there is a substantial disparity between large commercial and smallholder farmers

Is there is a type of primitive subsistence agriculture

Finding ways to reconcile these two economic activities is urgently needed to reduce conflicts and ensure that mining's benefits contribute to long-term sustainable development in rural economies. Communities relocated to make way for gold mines in Ghana struggle with loss of agricultural land, unemployment, and environmental damage A recent workshop in Mozambique identified five ways to sustainably intensify agriculture. In food insecure countries, large-scale investments are often considered a major driver of agricultural growth, but these can promote monocultures and intensive approaches that damage the environment and progressively decrease soil fertility Nations with rapid economic growth and relatively low rates of natural increase such as China over the past few decades have most of their urban population growth from urbanization; nations with little or no economic growth and high rates of natural increase (including many sub-Saharan African nations during the 1990s) have most of their urban. Trade of Subsistence Items. The single most important subsistence item for the Mayan society was maize. Mayans depended heavily on rainfall-based agriculture to grow enough quantities of maize. But in periods of drought or little rainfall, they had to trade with other cities and import vast quantities of maize in order to meet their needs Agriculture involves the cultivation of land for food and cash crops, fishing, forestry, hunting and other activities that relate to bringing out natural resources from the earth. Agriculture is the major activity in most of the West African countries, which constitutes about 60% of the total employment rate in the region in 2009

Description. Agriculture dominates the rural economy of Papua New Guinea (PNG). More than five million rural dwellers (80% of the population) earn a living from subsistence agriculture and selling crops in domestic and international markets. Many aspects of agriculture in PNG are described in this data-rich book Conclusion. Production capacity of the subsistence farming is not enough to satisfy the requirements of the humankind. Even though, commercial farming is profit oriented and contributes more for the environmental pollution, it is the only answer to feed and satisfy the basic requirements of the rapidly growing world population Traditional Economic SystemWhat It MeansDespite the extreme variety of human cultures throughout history, from Cro-Magnon cave dwellers to Ancient Egypt to twenty-first century America, there have only been three basic ways to organize economic life (the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services in a society). One way is to rely on tradition to decide what goods and. 1. Rapid growth. One of the fastest growing economies in Central Africa, Rwanda notched up GDP growth of around 8% per year between 2001 and 2014. The International Monetary Fund expects the economy to slow down this year and pick up in 2018, forecasting around 6% growth in 2016 compared with 6.9% last year. The IMF said Rwanda's growth in.

Economic Changes during Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution, a term usually applied to the social and economic changes that mark the transition from a stable agricultural and commercial society to a modern industrial society relying on complex machinery rather than tools. Dramatic changes in the social and economic structure took place. as an economic activity Food is a basic human need. • Acquiring food is the oldest human activity. (relates to the push/pull/stay factors when selecting a place to live). • Food collection is the original survival activity for people (first gathering, then hunting, and later agriculture). Subsistence agriculture: food produced. sector growth, and privatize and deregulate agriculture and industrial output. However, these changes have yet to make a significant impact in Zambia's economic state, and it seems that they have a long way yet to go. (www.bized.ac.uk) Economy Zambia has a dual sector economy based on traditional subsistence farming

As in the Archaic period, the most important economic sector was still tied to the land and the majority of agriculture continued to be carried out on the subsistence level by numerous small family farms, even though the distribution of land among the population was far from equal Social Studies: 3.5 Students demonstrate basic economic reasoning skills and an understanding of the economy of the local region. (1) Describe the ways in which local producers (and abroad) have used and are using natural resources, human resources, and capital resources to produce goods and services in the past and the present

Subsistence economy - Wikipedi

move from subsistence to commercial productivity, which also affects business development. Another definition of poverty stresses economic opportunity. This concept is the most difficult to measure empirically, but it is typically the most central in theory and public policy debates Agricultural Revolution in England 1500 - 1850. From the 16th century onwards, an essentially organic agriculture was gradually replaced by a farming system that depended on energy-intensive. Agriculture plays an important role in the process of economic development and can contribute significantly to household food security. The National Development Plan (NDP) sets out a broad vision of eliminating poverty and reducing inequality by 2030. The Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) was disestablished in June 2019 The goal of sustainable agriculture is to meet society's food and textile needs in the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Practitioners of sustainable agriculture seek to integrate three main objectives into their work: a healthy environment, economic profitability, and social and economic equity The traditional economic system is based on goods, services, and work, all of which follow certain established trends. It relies a lot on people, and there is very little division of labor or specialization. In essence, the traditional economy is very basic and the most ancient of the four types

Role of Agriculture in Economic Development Economic

given agricultural opportunities that will enable them to meet their basic food needs. In the 2010/2011 financial year food security was reprioritised as one of the top priorities for South African government (State of Nation Address, 2010) 'The Navy's land seizure knocked out most of the island's agriculture and effectively blocked the development of tourism, leaving commercial fishing as the primary means of subsistence.' 'There can be no real human liberation, Marx explained, unless the productivity of labour is so high that the majority of the population is no longer. Economic systems reflect the values, assumptions and goals of a particular culture. Subsistence economies, which prevail in the more remote and less industrialized areas of the world, place much value on ecology and living in harmony within the natural limits of their environment. Capitalist and Socialist economies both share the goal of.

You will need to be able to discuss factors that affect the global distribution of agricultural systems. The reasons are outlined below:PhysicalClimateClimatic factors include...1. Temperature: Most plants cannot grow if the temperature falls below 6°C or the soil is frozen for five consecutive months. As a consequence many areas are unsuitable for crop cultivation.2 The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Important Questions Short Answer Type Questions. Question 1. Define the meaning and aim of production. Answer: Production is the creation of value in a commodity, e.g., manufacturing of a car from steel. Aim: The aim of production is to produce the goods and services that we want Sustainable agriculture 101. OK, so sustainable agriculture is the wave of the future. But what is it, exactly? In agriculture, sustainability is a complex idea with many facets, including the economic (a sustainable farm should be a profitable business that contributes to a robust economy), the social (it should deal fairly with its workers and have a mutually beneficial relationship with the. Agriculture has a small contribution to GDP (around 5 %), but it employs about 30 % of the total labor force. The largest part of the economic contribution from agriculture is from relatively large, commercial farms, but traditional subsistence farming remains crucial for supporting a large share of the population Economics of Agricultural, Industrial, and Postindustrial Societies Figure 18.3. In an agricultural economy, crops are the most important commodity. In a postindustrial society, the most valuable resource is information. (Photo (a) courtesy Wikimedia Commons; Photo (b) courtesy AntanaBhadraLamichhane/flickr

One of the most controversial issues surrounding geneti-cally modified foods is whether biotechnology can help address the urgent problems of global hunger. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the number of chronically undernourished peo-ple in developing nations has risen in recent years to 798 million Other important industries include agriculture (sheep, vegetables) and mining. Tourism is emerging as an important economic factor as well, although Greenland's remote location and short summers are hindrances in this regard. Trade. Most manufactured and consumer goods available in Greenland are imported from Denmark Areas of economics may be classified in various ways, Agricultural economics. Main article: Agricultural economics. Agricultural economics is one the oldest and most established fields of economics. It is the study of the economic forces that affect the agricultural sector and the agricultural sector's impact on the rest of the economy

Commodities are an important aspect of most American's daily life. A commodity is a basic good used in commerce that is interchangeable with other goods of the same type The existence in some countries of a large-scale, productive commercial agriculture sector, well-integrated into global value chains, tends to mask a parallel reality in which many small-scale farmers and ranchers depend on low-productivity agriculture for their livelihoods and are frequently challenged to meet their basic subsistence needs With the global population expected to reach over 9 billion by 2050, there is a continuous need to increase food production and buffer stocks. In this scenario, countries around the world, especially developing countries where the pervasiveness of hunger and food scarcity is more acute, are resorting to various counter strategies to meet the growing demand and to avert food insecurity and famine The five-year plan sets economic and societal goals for every sector and region of the country. Shorter-term plans convert the goals into actionable objectives. The government allocates all resources according to the central plan. It tries to use the nation's capital, labor, and natural resources in the most efficient way possible