Threats to wildlife PDF

STATEWIDE THREATS Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy for New York 58 residences (Resident's Committee to Protect the Adirondacks, personal communication, September 16, 2005). Other popular second home regions in the state include the Finger Lakes, Hudson Valley, Tug Hill, Catskills, among others THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY: HABITAT LOSS, POACHING OF WILDLIFE, MAN-WILDLIF CONFLICTS Man has begun to overuse or misuse most of these natural ecosystems. Due to this 'unsustainable' resource-use, once productive forests and grasslands have been turned into deserts and wasteland have increased all over the world community and it will help to reduce wildlife threats and to develop wildlife management. Key words: Conservation challenge, Harenna Forest, threat, wildlife. INTRODUCTION Forests are one of the major biome types on Earth, and of fundamental importance to wildlife. However, the extent of natural forest cover in Ethiopia in the earl

Threats and conservation challenges of wildlife in Harenna

and moral responsibility to help foreign countries protect wildlife from extinction. As a strategic decision, USFWS has made a conscious effort to focus on the most important direct threats to the species that we end eavor to conserve, and the effectiveness of the actions most frequently undertaken to address those threats typically explain the threat being addressed in the project justification, Reporting systems, such as Wildlife TRACS, are helpful to integrate threat identification into action implementation. Using a standardized threat classification system across the region will help states prioritize threats (and/or associated actions) for regional.

Lecture 7 Threats to Wildlife II Learning Objectives Be able to: 1. Describe the magnitude of mortality figures for mammals (roadkill) where available. 2. Describe the effect of plastics on seabird mortality, and explain how you would generate a curve that estimates the likelihood of mortality from ingesting a certain number of plastic items. 3 Wildlife are under threat from many different kinds of human activities, from directly destroying habitat to spreading invasive species and disease. Most ecosystems are facing multiple threats. Each new threat puts additional stress on already weakened ecosystems and their wildlife The Hunter's Role in Wildlife Conservation Since wildlife is a renewable resource with surplus, hunters can help maintain wildlife populations at a healthy balance for the habitat. Regulated hunting should never lead to threatened or endangered wildlife populations. Hunting is effective wildlife management tool. Hunters play important role b

Lecture 7 Threats to Wildlife II

A lot of illegal cargo therefore goes undiscovered and most illegal wildlife prod-ucts reach their target countries. When it comes to illicit trade with rhino horn, it is assumed that about 75% of the illegal horns from Africa are smuggled to Asia. The quantity of seized wildlife products is thus only the tip of the iceberg They are one of the leading threats to native wildlife, putting 42% of threatened or endangered species at risk. One of the most sobering examples of the devastation caused by invasive species is the cane toad in Australia. Introduced from Hawaii to control a native grey-backed cane beetle, the toads decided they liked to eat other native fauna. threats that are growing both in number and intensity. These threats include rapid forest conversion into agricultural lands, illegal cattle ranching in protected areas, human wildlife conflict, poaching of high value wildlife and timber species such as macaws and rosewood, and wildlife trafficking

Threats to Wildlife National Wildlife Federatio

The Public Trust Doctrine: Implications for Wildlife Management and Conservation in the United States and Canada 9 Mahoney 2006, Organ and Batcheller 2009). These threats in various ways are potentiall Threats to Wildlife. There are many dangers for wildlife in the city. Wild animals often travel deeper into urban areas than they realize and find themselves confronted with an environment they do not understand. They may wander into heavily trafficked areas, get hit by cars, get frightened by people, and-if the animal happens to be a bird. Human-wildlife conflict: the issues 11 Attacks on domestic animals Another adverse effect of the human-wildlife conflict is the killing of domestic animals by predators. The number and type of domestic animals killed by wildlife varies according to the species, the time of year, and the availability of natural prey 2015-2025 Maryland State Wildlife Action Plan 5-1 Threats to Maryland's Wildlife Species and Their Habitats Introduction Many challenges confront fish and wildlife populations. Threats to these populations can be local, statewide, regional, national, or global in scale. This chapter and the next provid

Humans now the greatest threat to Earth, are destroying the planet and has killed 80% of all wild mammals, plants and marine life. Habitat destruction is the direct loss of Indian wildlife by removal of trees, polluting the rivers, leading the human wildlife conflict along with list of major environmental issues. Natural floods are another killer of India's wildlife, Floods in Assam put the. threats to protected areas that need to be seriously addressed. Attempts have been made to address and mitigate these threats but with mixed success. Consequently, the Kenya Wildlife Service and the government in particular should; re-examine wildlife conservation approaches, policies and objectives. They should urgently undertake many species of wildlife. Global climate change is increasingly being seen as a potential major threat to wildlife and wildlife habitat. A major concern in New Mexico is that global climate change Will increase the severity and length Of drought tions. It also has the potential to increase the frequency and inten Download Free PDF. Download Free PDF. A preliminary assessment of the risk of invasive pathogens in relation to the distribution of mosquitoes in the Kingdom of Tonga: potential threats to biodiversity Mosquitoes can be significant vectors of wildlife diseases and although most species endemic to the South Pacific have not been recognised.

The biggest difference between private land wildlife management and public land wildlife management is how objectives are determined. Wildlife managers for public land must set goals to satisfy a public with a broad range of values. Private landowners can decide what they personally value in a wildlife population. Except in a few trophy areas Free Ecology PPT: Threats to Biodiversity: Habitat destruction Deforestation, Invasive species, Genetic pollution, Climate changes, Diseases and Human populatio Threats to Indian Wildlife. Today, India's biodiversity is in jeopardy. Due to various reasons, many wild species are disappearing rapidly. An incalculable number of species are already gone forever, and a large percentage of the rest are threatened with extinction. In almost all cases, the threats to wildlife can be traced to human activities

2012 Annual Report - WildAid

The 5 Biggest Threats to Wildlife In The World Wanderlus

Destruction of wildlife habitat. Injury and loss of life of both humans and wildlife. Crop damage and livestock depredation. Damage to human property. Decrease in wildlife population and reduction in geographic ranges. Trophic cascades. Apart from the above, there are other causes of threat to biodiversity Threats to Wildlife. More than one-third of our nation's wildlife species are at risk of extinction in the coming decades, threatened by a host of human activities. Find out about the major issues currently putting America's treasured wildlife at risk. Read More Download Free PDF. Download Free PDF. Comparison of national wildlife management strategies: what works where, and why? Shalynn Pack. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. Read Paper. Comparison of national wildlife management strategies: what works where, and wh 2015 Connecticut Wildlife Action Plan Appendix 3 - 1 APPENDIX 3: THREATS TO CONNECTICUT'S WILDLIFE AND HABITATS AND THEIR LINKS TO CONSERVATION ACTIONS This appendix presents the identified threats to Connecticut's GCN species and key habitats and the associated conservation actions, research, inventory and monitoring needs

PDF Humans: The Number One Threat to Wildlife MORE MENU Alley Cat Allies › Resources › Humans: The Number One Threat to Wildlife Take Action Donate. Leading biologists, climate scientists, and environmental watchdogs all agree—humans'. As population grows at a record pace, the threat to wildlife and their natural habitats remains a grave concern. At NPG, we recognize that the only way to truly protect our wildlife from further damage is to reduce overall human population levels. Research on this topic reveals the following startling facts Also see Section I-E Threats to Wildlife and Habitats (page 17) of this document. d. Conservation Goals • Identify, protect, enhance, and/or restore endangered, threatened, and special concern wildlife and fish populations and their habitats through full implementation of Landscape Project International Illegal Trade in Wildlife: Threats and U.S. Policy Congressional Research Service 2 separatist and Islamist militant groups, in Africa and South Asia.7 Reports further suggest that military officers in some African countries may be involved or complicit in poaching operations.8 Well established Asian and Eurasian organized crime groups are further suspected of bankrollin

threats posed by wildlife and preferably enable local people to reap benefits - such as revenues from wildlife-based tourism enterprises. Without such policies and measures in place, local people will, understandably, often take action to defend their interests - even thei Threats can be past (historical, unlikely to return or historical, likely to return), ongoing, and/or likely to occur in the future. electrocution of wildlife, etc. This category includes dredging and other activities that maintain shipping lanes. Anchor damage from dive boats belongs in Threats to wildlife - Climate Change Climate change is quickly becoming the biggest threat to the long-term survival of America's wildlife. No longer is climate change something only facing future generations—changes to our climate are being documented all across the planet today, and people, animals, and plants are already feeling the heat

wildlife management practice before recommending it. Some wildlife management practice s may seem contradictory. For Senior contestants, landowner objectives, as well as specific information given by contest organizers, must be considered to determine the appropriate wildlife management practices is the most important threat to terrestrial wildlife populations (Mace ., 2005), et al along with other threats such as poaching for bushmeat and illegal wildlife trade and competition with livestock. Demands for food, income and land for development are rising in many biodiversity-rich parts of the world, exacerbating threats to wild GIS for Wildlife Management Human-caused disruptions, such as habitat loss, pollution, invasive species introduction, and climate change, are all threats to wildlife health and biodiversity. GIS technology is an effective tool for managing, analyzing, and visualizing wildlife data to target areas where interventiona eral wildlife viewing, visiting zoos and aquaria, snorkeling to view underwater life, hunting and recreational fishing [1]. Wildlife tourism can also be categorized as either consumptive or non-consumptive, which based on the recreational intentions of tourists and the level of visitor-wildlife interactions pharmaceuticals poses a threat to wildlife and also humans via drinking water supplies. However, monitoring and controlling the presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment is difficult and currently inadequate. Pharmaceutical residues have already devastated some wildlife populations. Furthermore, some pharmaceuticals have also been foun

Division of Forestry and Wildlife | Posters

Threats to wildlife. Threatening processes are practices that are reducing or will reduce the biodiversity and ecological integrity of a regional ecosystem and its wildlife. Processes that are threats to wildlife in Queensland include: (PDF, 11.8MB) provides evidence that land clearing causes species decline and habitat loss,. mestic cat a threat to native wildlife species whenever cats are permit-ted to live or roam outdoors. prey if given the opportunity. While indoor cats pose little threat to native wildlife, free-ranging and feral cats cause severe ecological impacts. Domestic cats are respon-sible for the extinction of numerous mammals, reptiles, and at least 3 NatioNal Wildlife federatioN a NeW PlayiNG field: HoW CliMate CHaNGe affeCts Nature Climate change is the biggest threat wildlife will face this century. Wildlife species are already contend - ing with numerous threats, such as major habitat losses, overharvesting of fish and timber, pollution, and invasive species recognized that economic, social, and wildlife trends were intertwined and difficult to separate in terms of their influence on wildlife conservation. The fundamental threats to and/or successful strategies for wildlife conservation are inherently complex, overlapping, interdependent, and unpredictable. Economic growth is a driving quantitativ Protected areas in Ethiopia faced a range of threats. However, little information is known about the type, pattern, and extent of these threats. Understanding these issues are crucial in prioritizing conservation strategies and to take appropriate mitigation measure for effective protection of wildlife. This study attempts to investigate the relative severity of threat to eastern Ethiopia.

Wildlife Poaching Threatens Economic, Security Priorities in Africa Key Points Increased demand for ivory and rhino horn in Asia stems from a rapidly expanding wealthy class that views both commodities as luxury goods that enhance social status as well as a growing number of ready buyers within Africa who serve as dealers to clients in Asia +2 National Strategy for Combating Wildlife Trafficking Executive Summary The National Strategy for Combating Wildlife Trafficking establishes guiding principles and strategic priorities for U.S. efforts to stem illegal trade in wildlife. This Strategy positions the United States to exercise leadership in addressing a serious and urgent conservation and global security threat

Threats to Wildlife - City Wildlif

UNDERSTANDING THREATS TO WEST AFRICAN BIODIVERSITY AND LINKAGES TO WILDLIFE TRAFFICKING | GHANA 3 A checklist for market visits to be used as part of an undercover investigation, where a team visits the market, spots the shops with wildlife products and records findings on smart phones using the checklist and other wildlife enthusiasts. Unregulated hunting, grazing compe-tition from domestic livestock, and habitat destruction from unre-strained timber harvesting, urbanization, and westward expansion throughout the nineteenth century reduced American elk populations to less than 100,000 individuals continent-wide by the early 1900s Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) of free-living wild animals can be classified into three major groups on the basis of key epizootiological criteria: (i) EIDs associated with spill-over from domestic animals to wildlife populations living in proximity; (ii) EIDs related directly to human intervention, via host or parasite translocations; and (iii) EIDs with no overt human or domestic. Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) is fast becoming a critical threat to the survival of many globally endangered species, in particular to large and rare mammals such as the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) and the Asian lion (Panthera leo persica), but also to less endangered species such as the snow leopard (Uncia uncia) and the Red colobus monkey (Procolocus kirkii)

Top 10 Biggest Threats to Wildlife of Indi

Humans: The Number One Threat to Wildlife. Leading biologists, climate scientists, and environmental watchdogs all agree—humans' own impact on the environment is without a doubt the number one cause of species loss. Habitat destruction, fragmentation, and modification caused by human-led activities (i.e., industrial and residential. 2000). With their larger size and higher traffic volumes, highways represent a more serious threat to wildlife, affecting a wider range of wildlife species and presenting an almost impassable barrier for many species of reptiles, amphibians and small mammals. Roads, highways and railways impact wildlife in a variety of ways. Direct loss of habitat This hearing is on international wildlife trafficking and threats to conservation, threats to security, and I would just start with the observation that we have a major slaughter going on across the Af-rican subcontinent. If we had looked at the numbers a few years ago we would have found that between 1990 and 2005, South Africa lost 14 rhinos Threats to Wildlife • More specific threats to wildlife are posed by deforestation, overgrazing, soil erosion, rampant hunting and fishing, and agricultural practices. However, the real status of most species remains unknown. Some of the major threats posed by human activities are discussed . 08/03/17 17. 18

(PDF) A preliminary assessment of the risk of invasive

  1. Wildlife is an important component of the entire ecosystem and we want to see it thrive. WWF, along with its many partners, has been working to address from of the critical threats that wildlife in Pakistan faces. We have been working with our partners for over four decades to ensure that the wildlife of Pakistan thrives
  2. associated SGCN; and non-SGCN wildlife species of high social, ecological, or economic value, including keystone species and game species that are associated with the habitat or aquatic basin. Threats This topic heading contains primary threats to habitat types or aquatic basins. The threats listed are not intended to be exhaustive, bu
  3. CURRENT THREATS TO CONSERVATION. Conservation efforts of Fijian Tropical Dry Forests are currently unsatisfactory. Most of Fiji's conservation efforts have been put toward preserving the rainforest, coral reefs, and beaches, while the dry forest for the most part has been neglected. A few small patches of dry forest remain on Vanua Levu, Viti.
  4. Habitat loss is often assumed to be the main threatening process in Australia, but the evidence indicates that invasive species have caused the most animal extinctions, and pose the main threat to some animal groups. The evidence for this comes from a number of sources and is summarised in this report, firstly as it applies to threatened.
  5. 3-8 Northeast Region-Threats to Fish, Wildlife, and Habitats Table 3.2. Threats identified by northeastern states (Maine to Virginia) in the 2005 State Wildlife Action Plans (in descending order of occurrences), coding is based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) threats classification (when available). Adapted from (AFW
  6. World Wildlife Fund Inc. is a nonprofit, tax-exempt charitable organization (tax ID number 52-1693387) under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Donations are tax-deductible as allowed by law
  7. At present, there are 59 wildlife habitats in the CWHR System: 27 tree, 12 shrub, 6 herbaceous, 4 aquatic, 8 agricultural, 1 developed, and 1 non-vegetated (download Habitat Range shapefiles (.zip)). Please note: the 59 habitats described below were designed for use with a predictive model for terrestrial vertebrate wildlife species

Major Threats to Biodiversity PPT & PDF Easy Biology Clas

  1. Table C. Occurrence of Damage and Threats to Resources by Wildlife Species Reported to the Wildlife Services Program - FY2006 Damage Agent Damage or Damage Threat State Resource Occurrence AK aircraft bats (all) damage (other) 1 bears, black damage (other) 2 beavers damage (other)
  2. Technical Report HCSU-010 REDUCING FERAL CAT THREATS TO NATIVE WILDLIFE IN HAWAI`I Prepared by Steven C. Hess1, Heidi Hansen2, 3, and Paul C. Banko1 1 USGS Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, P.O. Box 44, Hawai`i National Park, HI 96718, USA 2 Hawai`i Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawai`i at Hilo, Pacific Aquaculture and Coastal Resources Center, Kīlauea Field Station, P.O.
  3. ant threats are listed in Table 3-1 in descending order
  4. At the heart of the Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy is the identification of Tennessee's species of greatest conservation need. Special consideration was given to species that are endemic to the state or a particular ecological region of the state, are especially vulnerable to extirpation, or exhibiting declining trends either range wide or within specific areas of the state
  5. The wildlife conservation is a method of protecting wild species and their natural habitat from the various threats like poaching, killing, smuggling etc. by protecting them; we can enhance, restore and protect the ecosystem. For wildlife conservation, many efforts have been taken at the international and national level
  6. Conservation conflicts are some of the most intractable problems facing conservation and are increasing in frequency and intensity globally (Young et al., 2010).These conflicts negatively impinge upon biodiversity, livelihoods and human well-being, and therefore considerable effort is put into their management (Redpath et al., 2015b).Conflicts involve situations where multiple stakeholders.

Threatened Wildlife — Vikaspedi

The Journal of Wildlife Management 84(2):268-276; 2020; DOI: 10.1002/jwmg.21786 Research Article Dogs and Disease Threats to Giant Pandas in China XIA YAN,1 Sichuan Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife, Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, Chengdu, Sichuan 610081, P.R. Chin The fungal kingdom includes at least 6 million eukaryotic species and is remarkable with respect to its profound impact on global health, biodiversity, ecology, agriculture, manufacturing, and biomedical research. Approximately 625 fungal species have been reported to infect vertebrates, 200 of which can be human associated, either as commensals and members of our microbiome or as pathogens.

Feral hogs can cause extensive crop damage and pose threats to health of livestock and farm equipment from rooting damage to fields, fences, and pastures. The VDGIF has teamed with partner state and federal natural resource agencies and created a feral hog committee comprised of wildlife biologists and conservation police officers to address. More about how threats and issues or conservation actions were developed, opportunities to provide input and how this information can be used to make conservation decisions can be found on the Conservation Actions and Effectiveness Monitoring page and in Sections 2 and 4.4.3 of the Wisconsin Wildlife Action Plan. Threat/Issue Gr

(PDF) Living with the Large Carnivores: The interaction

Reducing Threats to Wildlife from Urban Bushmeat Demand Dr. Michelle Wieland and Lucie Escouflaire, Wildlife Conservation Society Rachel Boratto, Michigan State University Thomas Yocum, YoYo Communications R Boratto ©WC Brook Milligan Threats to Biodiversity: Extinction. Estimates of Current Extinction Rates: Galapagos Islands Unlike rest of Pacific, uninhabited before European discovery in 1535 A.D. Little human impact until 19th century 0-3 vertebrate extinctions in 4,000-8,000 years prior t Threats to Marine Wildlife Along the Texas Coast Information, while necessary, is rarely the only barrier to changing behavior. (Schultz, 2002) Why consider human behaviors? Knowledge is not enough! People's behaviors are influenced by multiple factor The illegal and unsustainable wildlife trade is a major and growing threat to biodiversity, estimated to be worth $8-10 billion (excluding fish and timber), making it one of the highest valued illicit trade sectors in the world. This is recognised by many governments as a major threat to biodiversity. For example

Threats to Biodiversity - Tutorialspoin

  1. understanding threats to wildlife from chemical pollutants 10 September 2020, by Mary Keck Red colobus monkey (Piliocolobus tephrosceles) in Uganda. Credit: Julie Kearney Wasserma
  2. Nevada Wildlife Action Plan 48 | P a g e Challenges in Wildlife Management Nevada is uniquely challenged in approaching effective wildlife conservation, in part because of its generally arid climate, geography, and relative scarcity of water resources, which has created a unique endemic biota easily subject to threats and stressors
  3. 4Kenya Wildlife Service, Tsavo West National Park, PO Box 71, Mtito Andei, Kenya Abstract: Conflicts between people and wildlife currently rank amongst the main threats to conservation in Africa. In Kenya, for instance, with much of the wildlife living outside protected areas, one of the real challenges to conservation is how to enhance an
  4. damage and threats to wildlife. Cost-effective environmental protection - providing green space in and around housing is a cost-effective and sustainable way of increasing environmental resilience, for example by reducing surface water flooding4 and improving air quality

Wildlife Guide National Wildlife Federatio

  1. wildlife conservation and created a small reptile park at Beerwah on the Sunshine Coast in Queensland in 1970. The park, which became known as the Australian Zoo, was a family business which Steve began to manage in 1991. Irwin's father taught him how to hunt crocodiles for relocating, and, by age nine, he was alread
  2. Nations Wildlife Enforcement Network (ASEAN WEN) and other platforms. It also addresses corruption, and the challenges faced by Thailand to identify and defeat this pervasive threat. Finally, the report concludes with several recommendations. Thailand can play a major role in tackling the global problem of transnational organized wildlife crime. I
  3. The survey was developed using the threat ranking systems im-plemented by the World Wildlife Fund's Threat Rank Classi fication, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and Bird Life International's World Bird Database. Respondents assigned scores with respect to severity (i.e. the outcome of an interactio
  4. Colorado's 2015 State Wildlife Action Plan 60 recommended in the 2012 Best Practices for State Wildlife Action Plans guidance (AFWA 2012). For the 2015 SWAP, we have adopted the Salafsky lexicon's classification of general threats and conservation actions ( Tables 5 & 6, respectively). The database that was developed to hous
  5. ority species sustains a proportionally greater decline in its reproductive rate
  6. command and control instruments when addressing the two most important threats to wildlife; overexploitation and habitat conversion. In section 4 we emphasize the importance of the institutional context, and discuss implications for developing countries
  7. threat to wildlife orientation Alfonso Balmori Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Junta de Castilla y León, C/ Rigoberto Cortejoso, 14, 47071 Valladolid, Spain HIGHLIGHTS † The growth of wireless telecommunication technologies causes increased electrosmog. † Radio frequency fields in the MHz range disrupt insect and bird orientation

(PDF) Comparison of national wildlife management

  1. ed in fivestages involving the transfer of the trophy from the animal on the ground to the market
  2. ed by the decision key with what is currently monitored by the department. Currently, staff within the Resource Management and Conservation Division monitors over 40 species of wildlife
  3. in wildlife and wildlife products and associated money laundering in the ESAAMLG Region. 2. Illicit wildlife trafficking is one of the most lucrative types of transnational organized crime today, with annual revenues estimated to be between USD 7.8 billion and USD 10 billion per year1 (excluding fisheries and timber)
  4. harvesting, hunting, trapping, or wildlife watching, they are less likely to recognize the very real impacts that the previously noted threats could have on natural wild rice in Minnesota. This loss of appreciation, while not a direct threat to the wild rice resource, nevertheless increases the risk
Hawksbill turtle - WWF-Australia - WWF-AustraliaRemote Sensing | Free Full-Text | Establishing a BaselineScirpus ancistrochaetus, northeastern bulrush

core areas providing wildlife that can be hunted in surrounding areas once it voluntarily moves one kilometre outside (1995 Tanzania Policy and Management Plan for Tourist Hunting) •Trophy hunting occurs in areas adjacent to protected parks & can be detrimental as hunting depletes wildlife and diminishes tourism's dra such as food, water, and habitat, often displacing other wildlife. Additionally, wildlife are vulnerable to many of the diseases and parasites feral swine carry. The most far-reaching impact feral swine have on native wildlife is habitat change and destruction through their rooting, wallowing, trampling, and feeding behaviors response from wildlife may be not very useful for avoiding future unsafe flights for wildlife. In order to deal with this issue, we decided to categorize the types of interactions between the drones and wildlife into: (1) provoked, when the drone was directed quickly and in a straight line towards the animal; and (2) inciden wildlife. A survey of residents of country towns and urban edges in NSW by Woolcott et al (2002) regarding their attitudes, behaviour, beliefs, and knowledge regarding urban wildlife renewal found that 62% agreed strongly that cats were a real threat to wildlife, but only 26% believed dogs were. A more recen threats among habitat types,between Canada and the world, and between Canada and the United States.In general,alpha was set at 0.05 for two-tailed tests,but was corrected to 0.007 using the Bonferonni method when comparing each broad-scale threat between Canada and the world,and to 0.01 when comparing Canada and the United States. All analyses wer Natural colonization and adaptation of a mosquito species in Gala´pagos and its implications for disease threats to endemic wildlife Arnaud Bataillea,b,c,1, Andrew A. Cunninghamb, Virna Ceden˜od,e,f, Leandro Patin˜od, Andreas Constantinoua, Laura D. Kramerg, and Simon J. Goodmana,1 aInstitute of Integrative and Comparative Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom.