Conventional radiography has no role in the detection of renal or urothelial carcinoma. Low-dose CT offers much greater sensitivities for the detection of urinary tract calculi than radiography at doses equivalent to conventional radiography. Ultrasound alone is insufficient for imaging of hematuria . Matthew Nielsen, Professor and Interim Chair of the Department, was a panelist and contributing author to the American Urological Association's new 2020 Guideline for the evaluation of hematuria, released this week. The guideline will be presented by panel co-Chairs at the AUA Live Virtual Experience at 3:45pm on Saturday, June 27 Hematuria (suspect mass) CT Hematuria Protocol ‐ CT/IVP w & wo 74178 MRI Abdomen w & wo (attn kidney) 74183 Hematuria (suspect stone) CT Hematuria Neurological Imaging w indicates with IV contrast, wo indicates without IV contrast These are general guidelines to assist in requesting exams by common diagnoses. Please consult with ARA. Radiologists have used the imaging techniques of excretory urography to develop CT urographic protocols. A typical CT urographic protocol has three phases that allow complete evaluation for the most common urologic causes of hematuria, that is, calculi, renal masses, and urothelial tumors (Fig. 1A, 1B)
Standard Imaging Protocols This document includes typical imaging protocols for diagnostic imaging. vRad teleradiologists expect to see imaging resulting from the use of these or substantially similar protocols in situations where there is no contraindication or facility requirement that requires a different protocol The ACR Appropriateness Criteria ® (AC) are evidence-based guidelines to assist referring physicians and other providers in making the most appropriate imaging or treatment decision for a specific clinical condition. Employing these guidelines helps providers enhance quality of care and contribute to the most efficacious use of radiology Hematuria can be microscopic or macroscopic. Hematuria should be from the left ureteric orifice only 4. In the absence of clinical symptoms, renal vein compression is referred to as nutcracker phenomenon or nutcracker anatomy, which can be a more common situation At MSR, hematuria protocol CT routinely involve acquisition of 3D CT urography images, as well as the traditional pre- and post-contrast thin section axial images of the kidneys. MSR is the first facility in Queens with a 16-detector spiral CT and one of the few centers in the New York area to routinely perform CT urography Currently CT urography is the preferred test and is recommended for imaging adult patients over 40 years of age presenting with visible hematuria, once UTI is excluded. In conclusion, CT urography.
The diagnostic efficiency of ultrasound guided imaging algorithm in evaluation of patients with hematuria. Eur J Radiol. 2011;79(1):7-11. (Level III/IV evidence). View the reference; Alishahi S, Byrne D, Goodman CM, Baxby K. Haematuria investigation based on a standard protocol: emphasis on the diagnosis of urological malignancy STone ProToCol CT Abdomen & Pelvis without contrast 74176 Hematuria Stone Flank plain Prostatitis Low back pain Dysuria Urinary frequency contrasted studies, if needed, at all Wake Radiology locations. Call if you have any questions 919-232-4700. Created Date
Key words: hematuria, interventional radiology, intravesical administration, treat-ment, urinary bladder neoplasms. Introduction Bladder carcinoma often causes recurrent and intractable hematuria. Reasons for bleeding might be sloughing of tumor mass, side-effects of radiation, cyclophosphamide-induce CT Protocol Cheat Sheet. First evaluation of acute pancreatitis to assess for necrosis. For follow-up, use CT Abdomen and Pelvis w iv contrast. Inflammatory bowel disease. Aneurysm/Dissection f/u. Eval for thoracic aortic injury. AAA assessment or follow-up. Evaluate visceral vessels for stenosis or aneurysm. Surveillance of endovascular abd CT- Abdomen and or Pelvis for Hematuria. To Schedule: (319) 861-7778 . Questions about Procedure: (319) 398-6050 . What is a CT Scan? CT scanning - sometimes called CAT scanning - is a non-invasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions Computerized tomography (CT) urogram: A computerized tomography (CT) urogram is an imaging exam used to evaluate your urinary tract, including your kidneys, your bladder and the tubes (ureters) that carry urine from your kidneys to your bladder European Journal of Radiology. Volume 126, May 2020, 108923. CT protocols and radiation doses for hematuria and urinary stones: Comparing practices in 20 countries
Imaging tests. Often, an imaging test is required to find the cause of hematuria. Your doctor might recommend a CT or MRI scan or an ultrasound exam. Cystoscopy. Your doctor threads a narrow tube fitted with a tiny camera into your bladder to examine the bladder and urethra for signs of disease Adult Hematuria Protocol- (4/22/2020) CTDI: <25 mGy per acquisition . Delayed Imaging. 12 minute delay . Scan from above the kidneys through the urinary bladder. V2.0 *Protocol designed to minimize the amount of radiation while maximizing the yield and produce diagnostically acceptable image quality imaging, and only 13% underwent cystoscopy.10 The underuse of cystoscopy, and the tendency to use only imaging for evaluation, is particularly concerning when one considers that the vast majority of cancers diagnosed among persons with hematuria are bladder cancers, optimally detected with cystoscopy.7,8,10,13 -15,20 2 Diagnostic imaging plays an important role in tracking down the site and cause of hematuria. Abdominal radiography and ultrasonography are usually indicated in cases of hematuria. Imaging is indicated early in the diagnostic process in patients with a recent history of trauma or physical examination findings such as abdominal masses or.
MDCT -thin section images ,higher spatial resolution at a faster rate ,(3-D) reconstructions of images-display any complex anatomy for surgical planning. The imaging protocol for CT should be tailored to specific diagnostic goals. In haematuria , commonly used phases with single bolus of contrast media are: (1) precontrast unenhanced phase, (2. 2 CT Protocols CT Protocols - IV Contrast • Indications - Mass/malignancy/staging • May require a special multiphase protocol - Infection/Inflammation - Pain - Unsure - Angiograms • Contraindications - Allergy - GFR>30 (>45) - Caution in hypertension, diabetes, renal transplant, single kidney, CRD • Not neede Colon Protocol (Colon Cancer, poly, post surgical) Yes Rectal contrast Yes CT ABDOMEN & PELVIS W CONTRAST (Please order with Rectal Contrast) 74160 and Hematuria painless Transitional Cell Carcinoma of Kidney Renal Mass (Cyst vs. Solid) Yes Yes CT ABDOMEN AND PELVIS W & WO CONTRAST 74170 an
GE Lightspeed 16 / Optima 580 Protocols. 3-Phase Liver. Abdominal Angiogram. Abdominal Angiogram S/P EVT Graft. Abdomen/Pelvis (no contrast) Abdomen/Pelvis (IV contrast) Abdominal/Pelvis for Renal Stone (no contrast) Adrenal Mass. Chest/3-Phase Liver/Pelvis . In certain cases CT may be better than MRI - consult radiology. Bowel • CT enterography for evaluation of small bowel focal or diffuse pathology. MR enterography is an alternative. Uterus/ovaries • If US of pelvis with transvaginal imaging finds suspicious lesions, MRI of the pelvis with and without contrast fo
In patients with microscopic hematuria, imaging can be used to detect renal cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma in the pelvicaliceal system or ureter, urolithiasis and renal infection SMIL provides optimized protocols for patients allowing for dose-saving measures while maximizing the benefits of CT urography, says Jared Allen, MD, PhD, a radiologist at Scottsdale Medical Imaging (SMIL). Individuals with hematuria and a history of a known cancer or risk factors for urinary tract cancer, particularly smokers, should be.
This protocol has been shown to demonstrate a cause of microscopic haematuria in up to 45% of patients, who previously had negative diagnostic investigations. In addition to the improved detection of pathology, sensitivity and specificity (92% and 94% respectively) of CT compared to histopathological specimen and urological surveillance was. microscopic hematuria initially with a CT without IV contrast (CT renal stone protocol) and if urolithiasis is diagnosed, post contrast scans are unwarranted, particularly in patients younger than 40 years of age. However, such algorithm which would decrease overutilization, its potential side effects an a two-phase protocol has been developed for the evalua-tion of patients with hematuria (7). In this article, we will describe the two-phase technique and discuss its advantages and disadvantages in imaging the patient with hematuria. As part of a two-phase MDCTU protocol, a non-contrast scan is initially obtained from the top of th
INTRODUCTION. Hematuria that is not explained by an obvious underlying condition (eg, cystitis, ureteral stone) is fairly common. In many such patients, particularly young adult patients, the hematuria is transient and of no consequence .On the other hand, there is an appreciable risk of malignancy in older patients (eg, over age 35 years) with hematuria, even if transient  The American Urological Association Best Practices Policy guidelines recommend IV or CT urography as the initial imaging test for patients with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria. 1 Likewise, the American College of Radiology rated CTU as the most appropriate imaging procedure in the evaluation of hematuria. 1 Furthermore, extraurinary findings. specify Renal Mass Protocol Alternative: MRI ABDOMEN WITH AND WITHOUT IV CONTRAST specify Renal Mass Protocol Unknown source of hematuria CT ABDOMEN Known or suspected urinary tract mass/cancer AND PELVIS WITH AND WITHOUT IV CONTRAST specify Hematuria Protocol Adrenal Characterize known adrenal mass CT ABDOMEN WITH AND WITHOUT IV CONTRAS The aim of the 2020 AUA guidelines regarding microscopic haematuria is to provide a risk-stratified approach to hematuria evaluation based on the patient's risk of harboring a urinary tract cancer and concordant with the patients' values. Microhematuria is defined as three or above red blood cells per high power field on microscopic. CT IVP Protocol: 2 phase Abdomen and Pelvis Split Bolus •<50 year old patient: 2 phase protocol •Radiation Reduction •Less concern for cancer as hematuria is more likely due to stones •Two injections •Once after non-contrast scan •Second at 10 minutes after first injection •IV hydration in between injections •Two phases: 1. Non.
Commonly Used CPT Codes for CT | Harrison Imaging Centers Silverdale/Port Orchard/Breast Imaging: (360) 377-6500 Bremerton/Poulsbo: (360) 479-6555 Procedure CPT Code Indications CT Abdomen Pelvis with and without IV Contrast 74178 IVP, Hematuria-Kidneys, Ureter, Bladder CT Abdomen Pelvis with IV Contrast 74177 Emergent Appendiciti ©2016 Advanced Radiology Consultants AdRad.com 203.337.XRAY (9729) COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT) SCANS Exam Reference / Protocol Guidelines For additional information on CT and other radiologic exams, please consult the American College of Radiology's ACR Appropriateness Criteria© document found at www.ACR.org . This is a helpful primer for non-radiologist physicians (i.e. family practice, internal medicine, surgeons, etc) on when to order a CT Abdomen with a CT Pelvis for. Magnetic resonance urography (MRU) can be used to thoroughly evaluate the renal parenchyma, the pelvicalyceal system, and the rest of the urinary tract in a single imaging study as in CT urography, and more specifically MRU is clinically useful in the evaluation of suspected urinary tract obstruction, hematuria, and congenital anomalies, as well as surgically altered anatomy
Computerized tomography tailored for the assessment of microscopic hematuria. Lang EK(1), Macchia RJ, Thomas R, Ruiz-Deya G, Watson RA, Richter F, Irwin R R, Marberger M, Mydlo J, Lechner G, Cho KC, Gayle B. Author information: (1)Department of Radiology, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA Examining the upper urinary tract in patients with hematuria-time to revise the CT urography protocol? Rud E(1), Galtung KF(2), Lauritzen PM(2), Baco E(3), Flatabø T(2), Sandbæk G(2). Author information: (1)Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. firstname.lastname@example.org. (2)Department of Radiology and.
RadLex radiology lexicon. We recognize the benefits that come from radiologists using common language to communicate diagnostic results. For this reason, RSNA produced RadLex®, a comprehensive set of radiology terms for use in radiology reporting, decision support, data mining, data registries, education and research Non-traumatic hematuria: Urinoma Protocol: Pre and 10 minute delay: Evaluate for collecting system leak in renal trauma (low-dose) IVP >50 yo 2 phase: BCT G06DE: 3 phase: Virtual nc.90sec.610in: Non-traumatic hematuria: KUB noncon: BCT G07: Noncon KUB: R/O urinary stones: Adrenal nodule 3 phase: BCT G08: 3 phase: nc.60sec.10min: classify. For an Appointment, call 1-800-281-5232 or 860-358-2600. Middlesex Health Radiology Department is committed to providing routine diagnostic imaging services, as well as bringing the latest in medical and diagnostic imaging technology to the communities we serve At Main Street Radiology, our hematuria protocol involves images from a 3D CT urogram, as well as traditional high-resolution CT images of the kidneys. What to Expect. During a CT urogram, an X-ray dye (iodine contrast solution) is injected into a vein in your hand or arm. The dye flows into your kidneys, ureters and bladder, outlining each of.
IHS Radiology Medical Group - Tax ID# 47-3394746. EXAM TO ORDER SYMPTOMS/CONCERNS CPT CODE MRI brain - post fossa • Vertigo 70553 MRI brain (pituitary protocol) w/ & w/o contrast • Hormone abnormalities • Pituitary 70553 MRI brain (seizure protocol) w/ & w/o contrast • Seizures - multiple early onset • Hematuria • UTIs 74178. Malignancy risk increases over age 35-40 years old. Age under 40 years with Hematuria. Healthy men with Hematuria at one time: 39%. Age over 40 years with Hematuria. Bladder Cancer Incidence: 2.5%. IV. Risk factors: Urologic malignancy risks (suggestive of significant cause of Hematuria) Tobacco Abuse. Occupational exposures (leather dye. Many imaging modalities have been used in the evaluation of patients with hematuria. Histori-cally, intravenous urography (IVU) has been the primary method of imaging in these patients (1,2). Currently, the examinations that are com-monly used to evaluate patients with hematuria include IVU, ultrasonography (US), compute Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) is a common condition, typically affecting adult men more commonly than adult women, although this difference is narrowing. Patients typically present with acute renal colic, although some patients are asymptomatic. Multiple risk factors include chronic dehydration..
Gross hematuria workup is outside of the scope of this guideline. This guideline has been updated in order to limit the unnecessary evaluation (cytology, imaging, & referral) of patients without true microscopic hematuria. Key Recommendations • Significant microscopic hematuria is defined as 3 or more RBC/hpf (≥ 3 RBC/hpf) on urine microscop Umeoka S, et al. Vascular dilatation in the pelvis: Identification with CT and MR imaging. Radiographics. 2004; 24: 193-208. Pan C. Evaluation of gross hematuria. Pediatr Clin N Am. 2006; 53:401-412. Hokama A and Oshiro Y. A thin 43-year-old woman with gross hematuria. Can Med Assoc J. 2005; 173: 251 What clinical trials for urinary tract imaging are looking for participants? You can view a filtered list of clinical trials on urinary tract imaging that are open and recruiting at www.ClinicalTrials.gov.You can expand or narrow the list to include clinical studies from industry, universities, and individuals; however, the National Institutes of Health does not review these research studies.
Bio Radiology final study guide. Course: Biology (Sophomore/Grade 10 - Science) Imaging Modalities. X -RA Y. X -rays ar e directed i n a focused beam toward s the patient. They will either pass thr ough the patient t o the film, be. absorbed by the patient' s tissue, or scatter. As X ra ys reach the casse tte and interact wi th the ra. EVALUATION OF HEMATURIA ! The$SEMC$radiology$departmentis$dedicated$to$ partnering$with$you$to$ensure$comprehensive$ imaging$workup$of$patients$with$hematuria.Below CT KUB or stone protocol CT is now the first-line imaging investigation in the diagnosis of calculus disease with a reported sensitivity of 96% to 100% and a specificity of 94% to 100% [27, 28]. The major limitation to the initial universal acceptance of CT KUB as a first-line test was the significantly higher radiation dose incurred by the. Indicate Pancreatic Mass Protocol on order IV only Abdomen Only (Renal Mass Protocol) History of hematuria or suspicion of urothelial malignancy Indicate Urogram on order IV Colonography Department of Radiology . Outpatients requiring oral contrast for a CT scan require a prescription for Readi-Cat 2, 2 bottles. Gross hematuria or greater than 100 red blood cells per high-powered field; 5-100 red blood cells per high-powered field on 2 separate urinalyses. o. If patient's age is 50 or over; and EITHER of the following: Gross hematuria or greater than 100 red blood cells per high-powered field
CT Urogram - Thin sagittal and coronal (3mm x 3mm) of the entire data set, and thick slab (3cm x 3mm) coronal MPR reconstruction should be performed of the opacified renal pelvis, ureters, and bladder. 3D of the collecting system can be performed, as needed or requested. Optional: Coronal/ oblique coronal thick volume slabs (1cm x 3mm) MPRs. Physician's guide on when to order CT or MRI for body imaging, musculoskeletal imaging and neurologic imaging. Have questions? Please feel free to call a physician at Premier Radiology. CT Renal Stone Protocol - If there is concern for hematuria, flank pain or renal stone. CT IVP - For full evaluation of the renal collecting system, ureters All Trauma CT exams with exception of Head should have coronal and sagittal reconstructions. If hematuria or suspicion of renal injury; then delays should be performed on abdomen pelvis CT in addition to routine imaging. If a spinal fracture is found at one level. Recommend CT of entire spine as 10-15% have a second fracture
imaging If endoscopy negative or cannot be performed, consider angiography (CT or catheter) / If endoscopy and angiography negative, consider 99mTc active bleeding scintigraphy scan Painful hematuria, r/o kidney stone CT abdomen & pelvis No IV contrast No oral contrast If negative, consider CT abdomen & pelvi Stone protocol Flank pain Abdominal pain, R/O aneurysm Ruptured aneurysm No No CT ABD/Pelvis w/o contrast 74176 Drop in hemoglobin without trauma Retroperitoneal bleed Urogram Hematuria Hydronephrosis Yes Water CT Urogram Abdomen Pelvis 74178 without ﬂank pain Pelvis Fracture Trauma No No CT Pelvis w/o contrast 72192 Pelvic mas
Genitourinary Protocol Indications: • Hematuria • Suspected renal mass • Evaluation of ureters Noncontrast Phase Imaging • Precontrast attenuation of masses • Calcifications Nephrographic Phase Imaging • Maximum lesion conspicuity Delayed Phase Imagin protocol. PELVIS (select one below) W/O contrast (osteomyelitis, fracture of hip/pelvis, Paget's disease) W contrast (pain, weight loss, bowel obstruction, diverticulitis, hematuria, neoplasm, renal calculus, ulcerative colitis, appendicitis, renal mass, enlarged lymph nodes, trauma) Radiologist to determine contrast based on department protocol Imaging Protocol. Most medical institutions employ a three-phase MDCTU protocol for the evaluation of patients with hematuria. Most three-phase MDCTU protocols comprise an initial non-contrast phase to detect urinary tract calculi and a second phase, i.e. the nephrographic phase, which is acquired following a delay of 90-100 seconds after administration of 120 ml of intravenous iodinated. Delayed imaging is performed at 8-10 minute; Main difference in renal and urogram protocols is when the pelvis is imaged Renal= Nephrographic only; Urogram= All phases (Non-contrast, Nephrographic, and Delay) If renal neoplasm status post complete nephrectomy, use the routine abdomen and pelvis protocol Three-phase CT urography (CTU) is the gold standard for evaluating the upper urinary tract in patients with hematuria. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of CTU for detecting upper urothelial cell carcinomas (UCC) in patients with hematuria and negative cystoscopy. Secondly, we aimed to determine the tumor visibility on each CTU phase. This retrospective study included all patients with.
SGRA Imaging Protocols Computed Tomography 2021 CT TRAUMA CHEST/ABD/PELVIS (CAP) 2020 CT ABDOMEN & PELVIS with oral and IV contrast 2020 CT ABDOMEN & PELVIS RENAL STONES without contrast 2020 CT ABDOMEN & PELVIS UROGRAM - Hematuria 202 Computed tomography IVP (CT-IVP), also known as a CT urogram, is the preferred modality of imaging the renal tract for the detection of genitourinary malignancy and disease. 1,2,5 It combines the benefits of CT-KUB with an IVP and can visualise the collecting system, ureteric and pelvicalyceal surfaces Identify the different causes of hematuria in children. Evaluate the source of hematuria based on history, physical exam, and diagnostic studies. Distinguish between isolated hematuria and hematuria associated with other renal and systemic manifestations that would require nephrology follow -up AAST grade 1 renal injuries include hematuria with normal imaging, contusions, and nonexpanding subcapsular hematomas; overall, this grade accounts for 80% of renal injuries. In CT images, contusions are perceived as ill-defined or sometimes sharply marginated areas of reduced enhancement and excretion
Importance Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria (AMH) is highly prevalent and may signal occult genitourinary (GU) malignant abnormality. Common diagnostic approaches differ in their costs and effectiveness in detecting cancer. Given the low prevalence of GU malignant abnormality among patients with AMH, it is important to quantify the cost implications of detecting cancer for each approach CT ABD/PEL C+ (last updated 07/28/2015, last reviewed 5/29/2018) INDICATIONS: Abdominal Pain, Appendicits, Diverticulitis, Mass, Metastases, Abscess, Adenopathy, Trauma, Hernia. Give1-2 cups of water just prior to scanning the patient in order to distend the stomach
74170, 72194 Pancreatic Protocol or 3-Phase Liver For pain, contrast is needed. 74170, 72194, 76376 Ste nt Protocol Question of: diverticulitis, appendicitis, abscess, cancer, prior abdominal surgery. For abdominal pain, contrast is needed. If the patient is diabetic, has a history of renal cancer A protocol based, electronic medical record enabled care coordination system improves the timeliness and efficiency of care for patients with hematuria in a significantly shorter time with more than a 1-month difference in time between referral and the completion of the imaging and cystoscopy components of the assessment (mean 40.9 vs 74.1.
dedicated hepatic protocol imaging A 26-year-old female asked: ill defined hypodense area on right hepatic lobe abutting capsule. found on a no contrast ct. need repeat ct w liver mass protocol. i'm scared Microscopic Hematuria Causes in Adults. Gross Hematuria. Definition. Significant Hematuria: 3 Red Blood Cell s/HPF or more. Epidemiology. Malignancy risk based on Hematuria type. Microscopic Hematuria: 5% malignancy risk. Gross Hematuria: 30-40% malignancy risk. Malignancy risk increases over age 35-40 years old Hematuria I. Problem/Condition. Hematuria means blood in the urine. It may be obvious from simply looking at the urine (gross hematuria), or incidentally found on a urinalysis and/or a urine. American College of Radiology View all recommendations from this society October 16, 2017 . Don't routinely use a protocol for abdominal CT that includes a delayed post-contrast phase after the venous phase, except for the following indications: renal lesion characterization, hematuria work up, CT urogram, indeterminate adrenal nodule characterization, hepatocellular carcinoma and.
Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology. For questions regarding how to order any of the CT scans or how to reach the appropriate sub-specialty radiologist, please call 314-996-8514. To schedule any radiology exam please call Radiology Scheduling 314-996-8080 7 a.m.-6 p.m. Monday-Friday Premedication for Contrast Allerg Don't use a protocol for abdominal CT that includes unenhanced CT followed by IV contrast-enhanced CT, except for the following indications: renal lesion characterization, hematuria work up, indeterminate adrenal nodule characterization, follow-up after endovascular stent repair, gastrointestinal hemorrhage or characterizing a focal liver mass V2.1 *Protocol designed to minimize the amount of radiation while maximizing the yield and produce diagnostically acceptable image quality Pre-Imaging of the Kidneys and Delayed imaging of the Kidneys, Ureters and Bladder for: H/O UTI's, Hydronephrosis, and/or Pyelonephritiis, Transitional Cell Cancer. Consult Multi-Phase Protocol for the. Macroscopic hematuria is a common symptom in other treatable benign diseases such as urinary tract infection and targets younger women of child bearing age, VGR also has the ability to let the researcher estimate the potential dose reduction resulting from changes in the imaging protocol. However, the design of this retrospective study does. Purpose: To define in which patients who present with microscopic or macroscopic hematuria CT urography (CTU) is indicated as an imaging mode for the upper urinary tract (UUT). Patients and Methods: We conducted a prospective study on consecutive patients who attended a modern protocol-driven hematuria clinic from January 2006 to February 2010. . Standard tests (history taking, physical.
790 Church Street, Suite 400, Marietta, GA 30060 (678) 239-0420 For Billing Questions, please call 1 (855) 871-152 The consistent use of these protocols with standard techniques for data acquisition, reconstruction, and display have led to an improvement in diagnostic potential for this mode of imaging Haematuria means the appearance of blood in the urine. Haematuria is most commonly present in very small quantities (microscopic haematuria) and is only detected by a simple dipstick test (urine sample). Less often visible blood may appear in the urine as a brown discolouration or red There are many possible causes of hematuria, including: Urinary tract infection — Hematuria can be caused by an infection in any part of the urinary tract, most commonly the bladder (cystitis) or the kidney (pyelonephritis).; Kidney stones ; Tumors in the kidney or bladder; Exercise — Exercise hematuria is a harmless condition that produces blood in the urine after strenuous exercise American College of Radiology and trauma to the ureter may also result in hematuria. The ureter contains several areas where stones commonly radiation dose was found to be 1.9 mGy with a low-dose protocol as compared to 9.9 mGy for a conventional protocol with similar diagnostic accuracy . Tube currents as low at 40 mA are.